Unibody Memory Analysis — Introducing Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0
Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 brings many of the features of Memoryze™ to the Apple Macintosh platform. This new tool enables acquisition of memory images via the command-line or a simple GUI. In addition, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 can perform offline analysis against memory images or live analysis on a running system.
The tool supports the following features:
- Imaging the full range of system memory
- Acquiring individual processes memory regions
- Enumerating all running processes
- Including those hidden by rootkits
For each process, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 can:
- Report all open file handles in a process (e.g. all files,sockets, pipes, etc.)
- List the virtual address space of a process including loaded libraries and allocated portions of heap and execution stack
- List network connections
- Active and listening
- All loaded kernel extensions including those hidden by rootkits
- The System Call Table and Mach Trap Table
- All running Mach Tasks
Okay, enough of the marketing. Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 can be downloaded here. To help get you started we’ll present a few of the features in this blog post.
For offline analysis your first step is going to be acquiring memory. The Mac Memory Dumper App makes this process as simple as pushing a button. To begin the acquisition, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 will require you to authenticate so that the application can load a memory dumping driver. After selecting the location to store the image and authenticating, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 will begin the acquisition process. The tool will provide you with a progress bar and an image size monitor for each of your acquisitions (fancy, huh?).
Note that the final size of the dumped image may exceed the size of your physical RAM. If the system has 8GB of physical RAM installed the dump may be 10GB. You may ask yourself, “Self, why is the dumped image bigger than my actual memory size?” There are regions that are physically addressable but are not part of actual DRAM, pesky memory-mapped devices. These regions are written to the image file as 0×0-bytes to help preserve the correct offsets within the image.
Once Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 finishes the acquisition; we can use it to perform memory analysis(note Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 can also perform analysis on images acquired by other tools). With our data ready, let’s run through several of the process analysis features we mentioned above.
We’ll start by performing a basic process listing based on the memory image we just created. Execute the command below:
macmemoryze proclist –f ~/Documents/my.mem 2>err.txt
Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 will open “my.mem” for analysis and detect two critical pieces of information about the image: the operating system version and whether the system is running 32 or 64-bit kernel. Armed with this information the proclist analysis module locates the operating system data structure that maintains the list of running processes.
If you take a look at the output below, you can see that Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 extracts the PADDR, or physical address, of each process (this is also the offset of the process in the acquired memory image file). You can use the PADDR to quickly locate the process in question in an offline tool such as a hex editor. Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 also extracts other standard identifying information such as the process NAME, PID and parent PID (PPID). In addition, the tool provides the start time for each process in UTC. Finally, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 extracts each process’ associated USERNAME, effective userid (EUID), and real userid (RUID).
Based on the process listing above, we may be interested in getting a more complete understanding of what a particular process may be doing. We can list file descriptors and memory sections for all of the processes in the listing, but this would get pretty lengthy and present too much information at once. Using filters we can limit display to a smaller subset or a single process. We can use the “-n” option to filter processes by NAME or the “-p” to filter processes by PID.Execute the following command:
macmemoryze proclist –w –p 14 ~/Documents/my.mem 2>err.txt
In the image above, we show a snippet of a file descriptor listing for PID 14 using the command-line switch “-p 14″. This shows us all open file descriptors for the given process. This includes files, UNIX domain sockets, networking sockets (such as TCP), and so on. For several of the types/subtypes, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 will provide a value associated with the item type. The value for a descriptor of type FILE is the filename associated with the file descriptor while the value for a type SOCKET subtype TCP is the source IP address, destination IP address, and associated ports.
Now that we’ve completed some filtering, let’s dig a little deeper and perform detailed analysis of the “notifyd” process. The image below contains a snippet of its memory sections listing. Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 shows us the start and end virtual addresses and a human-readable size for each section. For some memory sections, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 also provides a type, such as
IOKIT. These types provide insight into the purpose of the memory section. For other memory sections, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 displays the filename that is located at (or was used to initialize) that particular memory region. Please execute:
macmemoryze proclist –s –p 14 ~/Documents/my.mem 2>err.txt
Neat, huh? So now we’ve analyzed the standard operating system (OS) process list structure. If it’s good enough for the OS, it’s good enough for us, right? Not really. It’s fairly trivial for malware to unlink itself from the process list that the OS maintains. In light of this, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 provides a process carving feature that allows it to enumerate and analyze processes based on their signature in memory. This means that Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 does not have to depend on the OS to provide a list of processes. This enables Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 to discover processes that have been hidden from standard OS listings. This same carving feature extends to the kextlist and syscalllist Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 features, allowing you to discover other hidden data within the OS.
Now don’t forget, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 can be run offline using an acquired memory image, or live, analyzing the running system in real-time. Below we show a system call table listing using the live memory analysis feature of Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0. Notice the missing “-f” option. We can use this listing to check for system call table hooking. System call table hooking allows attackers to surreptitiously monitor or filter user-level programs interactions with the OS kernel. This is commonly used to hide files and network connections from user-level programs. The syscalllist feature also supports discovery and listing of the Mach Trap table. Mach Trap, what? The mach trap table is analogous to the system call table in the BSD portion of OS X, but within the Mach portion of OS X. So we want to ensure we can check for possible hooking within that table also. To perform a live listing execute:
sudo macmemoryze syscalllist -s
In order to hook the syscall table we would probably want to use a driver. Have no fear! Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 can carve loaded kexts from memory. A decent malware author would probably want to hide itself from the OS by unlinking from internal data structures. To combat this, Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 will parse live memory or a dead file to find loaded drivers, as shown in the screenshot below.
Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 supports an XML output option (“-x”) that will create an XML file with an extended version of the console output, only in XML format. “Extended version,” you ask? There is only so much console real estate. We must make decision about what information to display. So therefore, stuff gets left out. For example, we parse the full file path of the executing process and the process arguments. These are not displayed in the console output, but are accessible if using the XML output option. These XML files can also be loaded into Mandiant Redline™ (currently windows only, boo!) for viewing in a GUI.
There are other features of Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 that we have not detailed here, but we don’t want to give you all the answers. What’s the fun in that? We really want you to use the tool and provide us with some feedback on features, interface, usages, and so on.
Memoryze™ for the Mac 1.0 currently supports:
- Mac OS X Snow Leopard (10.6) 32/64-bit
- Mac OS X Lion (10.7) 32/64-bit
Please leave your comments and thoughts below. We hope to continue to improve the state of Mac memory analysis for incident responders and security professionals.
“Mac” is a trademark of The Apple Corporation. Mandiant is not affiliated with or endorsed by The Apple Corporation.