Reasoning is the process by which we rationalize information, reduce uncertainty, and make decisions.
A decision can be deconstructed into the influences upon it—whether those are environmental factors, bias or an estimation on the outcome. A decision involves uncertainty, where there is more than one potential future outcome. Before making a decision we often reduce uncertainty by “collecting all the facts or influences” and evaluating the evidence holistically. It is therefore the role of the decision maker to reduce the uncertainty towards an outcome and make the appropriate decision.
Humans make thousands of decisions every single day—from fast and instinctual (should I bring an umbrella today?) to complex and time consuming (should I make this investment?)